CITY OF ARAK


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The History of Arak

City of Arak is the land of Mohseni Family ancestors

Arak is a village built on the ruins of a small town called Daskerah, which was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Persia.

Modern Arak is a relatively new village on fertile lands, reestablished in 1795 with primary construct ending in 1852. The new city was founded and financed

during the Qajar era by an Iranian Georgian Yusef Khan Gorji, a pro-Iranian Georgian warlord given refuge by Agha Mohammad Khan (1742 to 1797) following a

territorial dispute with his cousins who were supported by Imperial Russian Empress Catherine the Great.

The town would remain a military base and fortress until 1892. The Soltan Abad fortress had a thick wall surrounded by great moats, 7 meters deep.

Eight towers were constructed around the town and the governmental building was established in its northern part.

In 1891 deputy governor, Etemadol Saltaneh Mirza Hasan, repaired all of the shops, gardens and all government buildings in Soltan Abad’s greater town and with

the owners of industries from other towns, settled in Arak. Large portions of the town were annexed as personal property to the pre-existing army commanders

though these were ultimately turned over to the state from 1918 to 1922.

The evolution of the modern town name is from Soltan Abad fortress, to Sultan Abad, to Iraq-e Ajam (Persian Iraq), and finally to its current name, Arak,in 1938.

The city officially became a Metropolis after the merger with Karahrud and Senjan occurred on April 6, 2013

The name Arak remains from a title given to the region since the medieval period, and derives from the Arabic Iraq, meaning " The edge."

During the Seljuk era, a region comprising the whole territory of Media (northwestern Iran).

The lower part of Mesopotamia was referred to as Iraq; with the Median part called "Iraq of the Ajam," and the Mesopotamian part called "Iraq of the Arab.

After its establishment during the Qajar era, the city was referred to as SOLTAN ABAD. It was later renamed Arak, under the reign of Reza Shah of the Pahlavi Dynasty.

The modern-day city of Arak was founded during the Qajar era. Named Soltan Abad at the time, it was founded by Yusef Khan e Gorji, a pro-Iranian warlord who

was given refuge by the Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan, following a territorial dispute with his cousins who were supported by the Russian empress Catherine the Great.

Between 1795 and 1797, Yusef Khan e Gorji, renamed Yusef Khan e Sepahdar by the Shah, settled his army in the fertile but poorly-controlled territory that would become

the modern-day Arak. Hostile tribes in the region had operated autonomously from the Qajar rule. With the Shah's approval, Yusef Khan diverted the main river to drive out

the hostiles and build the war fortress of Soltan Abad to act as a buffer. According to historians, Yusef Khan built the city with the aid of effluents.

Until 1892, the town remained a military base and fortress. The fortress of Soltan Abad had a thick wall surrounded by 7-meter-deep moats. Eight towers were constructed

around the town and the governmental building was established in its northern part.

In 1891, shops, gardens, and government buildings of Soltan Abad were repaired by the order of the deputy governor Etemad os Saltane (Mirza Hasan).

Large parts of the city were formerly annexed as personal property to the pre-existing army commanders, and were then ultimately turned over to the stat around 1918 /1922.

Beginning by the last quarter of the 19th century, the city achieved major developments in carpet industry, and eventually became Iran's most important center of carpet production

for export markets, continuing up until at least 1940

Under the reign of Reza Shah of the Pahlavi Dynasty, modern factories for vegetable oil, soap, sugar beet, and wool industries were established in Arak.

The city also became an important station for the Trans-Iranian Railway, a major railway project directed by Reza Shah which was completed in 1938.

In 1972, two major state-owned enterprises were established in the city, including an aluminum smelter and a heavy engineering plant.

The aluminum smelter was built under the Regional Cooperation for Development project of the Central Treaty Organization, in cooperation with the company of Reynolds and Reynolds;

and the engineering plant was processed with equipment and technical advice from the Soviets, in return of the gas sales to the Soviet Union.

The city officially became a metropolis on April 6, 2013, after the merger with Karahrud and Senjan for Development project of the Central Treaty Organization, in cooperation with the company

Of Reynolds and Reynolds; and the engineering plant was processed with equipment and technical advice from the Soviets, in return of the gas sales to the Soviet Union.

The city officially became a metropolis on April 6, 2013, after the merger with Karahrud and Senjan

History of Markazi Province

The medieval Iraq-i Ajam, more recently Arak is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. The word markazi means central in Persian. In 2014 it was placed in Region 4.

Markazi lies in western Iran. Its capital is Arak. Its population is estimated at 1.41 million.The present borders of the province date to the 1977,

when the province was split into the current Markazi and the Tehran Province, with portions being annexed by Esfahan, Semnan Province, and Zanjan.

The major cities of the province are: Saveh, Arak, Mahallat, Zarandiyeh, Khomein, Delijan, Tafresh, Ashtian, Shazand (previously known as Sarband) and Farahan.

Markazi province was part of the Median Empire in the first millennium BC, which included all of the central and western parts of modern-day Iran.

The region is considered to be one of the ancient settlements on the Iranian plateau. Numerous remaining ruins testify to the antiquity of this area.

In the early centuries Islam, the name of the area was changed to Jibal or Qahestan. By the early 10th century, Khorheh had become a famous city of Jibal province, followed by Tafresh and Khomein.

In recent times, the expansion of the North-South railroad (commonly known as the Persian Corridor) and the establishing of major industries helped boost development in the area.

Many figures in Iranian history trace their beginnings to this province. namely: Mirza Abulqasem Qaem Maqam, Abbas Eqbal Ashtiani, Mirza Taqi Khan Amir Kabir, Qaem Maqam Farahani

Mahmoud Hessabi, Ayatollah Khomeini, Haji Aga Mohsen Araki, and many others.

Agriculture and handicrafts

The main agricultural products of the city are grain, barley, and fruits including grape, apple, walnut, and almond. Arak also exports hand-knotted carpets which are generally referred to as Sarouk rugs.

Saruq is a small village outside the city of Arak, and its name is used in order to prevent confusion with rug from the modern-day country of Iraq.

location of city of Arak

Arak city is located in Markazi Province, approximately 288 kilometers from Tehran. The city borders Saveh city in the north, Hamadan in the northwest

The cities of Malayer, Khomein, Ali Goudarz in the west and Mahalat in the east. Arak is surrounded by mountains in the south, west, and east, and its average altitude is 1750m above sea level.

This city, which is only 200 years old, officially became a metropolis in 2014.

Climate of Arak

Arak has a continental climate (Keoppen climate classification Dsa) that is, in general, relatively cold and dry.

The weather of the city is warm and dry in summer, windy and cool in autumn, cold and snowy in winter, and mild in spring. Its maximum temperature

may raise up to 35 degrees Celsius in summer and fall to below -25 degrees Celsius in winter. The average rainfall is around 350mm and the annual relative

humidity is 46%.

The city has cold, dry weather with warm summers, windy and cool autumns

Arak University of Medical Sciences .

Arak University of Medical Sciences is a medical sciences university in Arak, Iran .This university is the main health care provider in Markazi province and

one of the bigest universities in central of Iran The university was established by followings-up and efforts of director of regional organizations for Health

in Markazi province and Majlis representative of Arak and authorities of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education after getting required permissions

for founding Arak School of Medicine in 1987, and in February 1988 School of Medical Sciences commenced its activities with gathering school of medicine and

college of nursing and midwifery together with accepting 60 students in medicine field and was separated and did its activity independently in 1988.

In 1990, The University was converted to "University of Medical Sciences". In 1994 with the inclusion of regional organizations for Health in the University of

Medical Sciences, this university was named the University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Markazi Province, and it took responsibility for offering

health services in province

Transport

Airport

The city is served by the International Airport of Arak, which is located north of the city. The airport was opened in 1938, and is one of the oldest airports of Iran.

Rail

The railway of Arak was connected to the Iranian Railways in 1935. Destinations stretches directly from Bandar-e-Shapur in the southwestern Iran to Bandar-e-Torkman

under the Caspian Sea.

Public transportation

Buses provide the bulk of local public transport

Markazi Province Nature

Miqan Salt Lake and Salt Desert

Miqan Lake is placed to the northeast of Arak and is the final point of the water basin for Arak which absorbs the surface water of the seasonal flood canals.

The area of the Miqan Lake is between 100-110 square kilometers. In winters the weather is moderate, that is why, many migrant birds com to this lake from

colder regions. In the past this lake was named as the Farahan Salt Marsh.

Nakhjir Cave

Chāl Nakhjir is excellent in having sedimentary forms and dolomite structures. Crystal spongy forms and prisms, coral-like gardens, corridors, terraces

and ponds give the cave a especial beauty and make it unique among lime caves.

There are many deep valleys. The reflection of light of crystal prisms along with different sizes of stalactites and stalagmites and other features of cave

floor create an image in the mind of viewers as if they are seeing coral gardens. The floor are covered with white dolomite sediments and lime crystals.

Nakhjir is accessible all the time of year. The landscape of plains in vicinity is enchanting. Service facilities are provided for tourists.

Abgarm hot mineral water spring

Abgarm hot mineral water spring is northeast of Mahallat. It is a series of mineral water spring with a temperature of at least 50o C. It flows from slopes

of Khurzan Mountain with the height of 1,635 meters. The water is combined with calcimine sulfate, nitrogen and especially sulfur gasses. It has medical

benefits for hepatic, renal, bilious and digestive diseases. It is also believed to be beneficial for gout. Abgarm complex is well-equipped to ease visitors

It is 25 kilometers to Mahallat.

Vafs Village

It is determined as the target village and sample tourism center of the district. It is situated in 15 kilometers northeast of Komijan.

The village is abundant with gardens. The narrow winding lanes in-between gardens and orchards are fascinating. The village lies on the slopes of

high mountains and is 2,200 meters above sea level. The climate is mountainous and temperate. There are ancient shrines of a number of descendants of

Imam Ali– the first leader of Shiite Muslims. Vafs has the potentiality to become a center for winter sports. The people speak in Tati.

The village has kept its historical architectural context.

Geographical and Historycal Description of Arak

The city of Arak covers an area of over 7000 square kilometers, standing 1800 meters above the sea level. This city is the Capital of Markazi Province.

This city was initially built by the Qajarid King, Fath Ali Shah, as a fortification under the name of Sultan-Abad in the year 1812 AD, for the Iranian army to

be equipped and organized over there. In the year 1272 AH, this city developed, and a large number of traders settled in it, such that in the early years of 14

Century AH it was one of the well-developed cities of Iran; and countless foreign and Iranian companies were established in this city. Finally, in the year

1316 solar hijri, this city was renamed as Arak.

The city of Arak maintains the climate of Iran’s central plain; with long, chilly, and humid winters; and warm, dry, and short summers.

Note that the presence of mountains, plains, and Miqan plain in the vicinity of Arak has highly influenced the regional climate. Although Arak is a dry region

with a low rate of rainfall; snow blankets the mountains in the environs of this city, which melts in spring, and summer seasons, creating several springs and

creeks.

Numerous rivers run across southwest and west of the city of Arak, including Tavandasht Roud, Kouh Roud, and Saarouq Rivers.

Haftaad-goleh Mountain Range are a protected habitat in Markazi Province, covering more than 83,000 hectares. It is situated east of the city of Arak.

This Mountain Range is the habitat of a wide range of wild animals; and in the past was one of the well-known hunting sites of Iran. An inscription which has

been engraved concurrent with the Qajarid era in this region goes to show its diverse plant and animal species in those days. The fact of the matter is that

currently this region is home to 200 different plant and animal species, including partridges, pigeons, vultures, and falcons, ewes, rams, goats, and deer.

Development of a metal, chemical, textile, construction, and food industries in Arak and the distinguishing geographical position of this city has turned Arak

into a metropolis. Hence, in the recent two decades this city has significantly grown. Arak is also home to numerous historical monuments, including the historical market of Arak,

Chahar-Fasl Public Bathroom, Imamzadeh Hussein Holy Shrine, and Pirmorad-Abad Tomb. In this part, we will brief you on a number of these priceless historical monuments.

The historical market of Arak, which covers an area of 14 hectares, is one of the glittering examples of urban development in early 13th Century AH. It is part

of the initial fiber of city of Arak; consisting commercial and residential units, such as a mosque, a public bathroom, a school, a guest house, and water

store. There are two corridors in this historical market which intersect each other. The north-south corridor is 720 meters in length, maintaining two

gateways. Moreover, the east-west corridor is 200 meters in length.

These two corridors intersect each other in a region which is popularly known as Chahar-Souq. There is a stone-made pond in this region. For long, Arak historical

market has highly contributed to the economy of this region as the commercial hub of the city of Arak. Like other Iranian markets, each section of Arak historical

market is allocated for a particular economic activity. Carpet trade is one of the main economic features of this historical market.

A fundamental architectural style has been taken into consideration in construction of Arak historical market. This market is equipped with a ventilation system.

Also, the usage of bricks and wooden logs in the design and construction of this market has added to its beauty.

The ceiling of this market is domed, on which apertures have been installed for entry of light rays. Given the particular architectural style of Arak historical market,

this market is warm in the cold season and cool in the summer season. The Markazi Province Handicrafts Museum is situated in Arak historical market. This market was enlisted

among the national historical monuments in the year 1976.

Sepahdar School is one of the historical monuments of this city, which dates back to Qajarid era and has been constructed concurrent with the foundation of the market.

It is the first religious sciences center in the city of Arak. A large number of scholars study theology and other Islamic sciences in this school. The architectural style of

this school is mainly rooted in the architectural style of Safavid era schools, and includes a mosque, a water store, and other welfare facilities. This school maintains two gates;

one of which leads to the market. It also has a large courtyard; in the middle of which is a stone-made pond.

One of the most beautiful historical monuments of Arak is Chahar-Fasl Public Bathroom, which dates back to late Qajarid era. Paintings have been drawn on the four corners of

this public bathroom. The architectural style of this public bathroom is unique. The bathroom covers an area of more than 1600 square meters and it is known as the biggest public

bathroom of Iran. The ancient public bathrooms in Iran maintain a highly interesting architectural style. Usually upon entry to pubic bathroom we embark upon the fitting room, which

is decorated with tile works. This historical public bathroom has been currently turned into a museum, in which valuable historical items, such as ceramic dishes, coins belonging to

different historical periods, Qajarid era contracts, hand-written books, copper-made dishes, ceramic jars, and spinning tools have been maintained.

Now that we have become appropriately familiar with Arak’s historical monuments; it is interesting to know that carpet-weaving is of paramount importance among this city’s handicrafts.

Arak is one of the four carpet-weaving centers of Iran and carpets of this city maintain global fame. Carpet-Weaving grew and developed in Arak as of the Qajarid era.